Law enforcement tactics in an interrogation are not the sole reason that false confessions occur.
Introducing false evidence to an otherwise innocent suspect nearly doubles the chance that the person will confess. Here, interrogators “minimize” the crime by providing the suspect moral justifications—such as peer pressure, provocation, or spontaneity— for his or her actions.Whether they are situational factors or dispositional traits inherent in a person, research has shown that either one can increase the risk of a false confession. B.1 therefore investigates the situational tactics used in police interrogations that can increase the chance of a false confession. B.2 examines what traits can make people vulnerable to falsely confessing.Three interrogation elements can induce a confession to a crime: (1) length of time; (2) presenting false evidence; and (3) minimization.[O]fficers of the criminal justice system—from law enforcement, to prosecutors, to defense attorneys, to judges, and even the jury—are called to both protect the public from lawbreakers and to protect the innocent from being wrongfully convicted.Electronic recording is a simple tool that serves both of these goals.